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Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 1 January 2005 LEADERS GUIDE MATERIALS • Copy of Slides and DACI Worksheets for participants • Power Point Slides for presentation SET UP • Ideally, tables of 4 or U-Shaped table set-up • Set up for PowerPoint projection KEY TO LEADERS GUIDE PPT = PowerPoint Slide Handout = DACI Worksheet Content in italics indicates what Managers should DO, e. g. , introduce program, have a discussion. These are directions for the Manager. Italics can also indicate possible Manager responses to a question.

Questions to ASK the group are underlined. All plain text is content to be SAID. Times for each section (in parentheses) are approximations. MANAGER PRE-WORK Managers need to read this Guide completely before conducting the session. This is especially important, as there are several places where Managers need to identify examples or information ahead of the class. The most critical place where this happens in when the Manager prepares a DACI worksheet for the participants to complete. (See “Do a DACI” section. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 2 January 2005 Please print out copies of the PPT slides to give to participants. They will be working from the slides throughout the session. Also,

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make an additional copy of DACI Worksheet. Participants will need one for use in the session and a blank one to take away with them. TELL-SELL MODEL OPTION For Managers who are interested in using and teaching the TellSell decision-making model, there is an optional session attached to the end of this Guide.

Managers who learned this model in MPP and have been using or wanting to use it might consider this option. It can be done at the same time as DACI or later. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 3 January 2005 DECISION MAKING AND DACI (2 Hours) INTRODUCTION (5) PPT1 Open by explaining why you are doing a Decision Making session. Discuss the process that has led to this session and the companywide roll out of the DACI decision making model, including: • Empowerment Taskforce o The 2003 Organizational Effectiveness Survey dentified decision making as area needing improvement in the company. This taskforce was formed to address this issue o After reviewing many possible options, they adopted DACI as company-wide decision-making model • The work of Dave Story in DI-DV group o When Dave joined Adobe, he surveyed his group and decision making was a top concern o Having used DACI successfully in the past, he introduced it into his group • The training and adoption by the E Team o Based on the Empowerment Taskforce’s recommendation, the E Team began working with this model. The roll out at the Senior Leader Conference o Both the Taskforce and the E Team want senior leaders to model using DACI. As appropriate, talk very briefly about why this session is important to you and the company, mentioning any personal experience with the model. Given this background, this is the goal for the session: PPT2 Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 4 January 2005 • To improve our decision making process by understanding and using the DACI model Generally, we make decisions 2 ways – with a team and individually.

This model focuses on the former. DISCUSSION: Hopes and Fears about Changing Decision Making (15) Before we get too deeply into the session, I’d like to hear from you about your hopes and fears/wishes and concerns about changing decision making at Adobe… or more importantly within our group. What do you hope/fear that we will/won’t change about our decision making process? PPT3 Capture the comments on the white board or on flip charts. Make two columns, one that is labeled HOPES and the other labeled FEARS.

Be thinking of your own hopes and fears to add at the end. Here are some examples of what other managers and individual contributors have said about their Hopes and Fears. Hopes: • More clarity and communication about who should be involved in a decision and what roles they should play. • More clarity about who makes the final decision. Where does the buck stop? • Less reopening of decisions because, e. g. , the wrong person made it initially or new information emerges at the last minute. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 5 January 2005 Better communication between the people who must execute the decision and person has made it • More decisions made a lower (appropriate) levels Fears • People will figure out “work arounds” to the process • We will be inconsistent in adopting it throughout company and over time. “Flavor of the month” syndrome. • We are adding yet another process within Adobe when we already have so many • We will lose the benefits of our collaborative style Summarize the discussion, highlighting the most common points and/or what you think is most significant.

Tell group that you believe the model presented in this session will certainly address many of the Hopes. However, diligence in using the model will be required to allay many of the Fears. LECTURE: A Good Decision = Quality, Speed and Execution (10) Any process we adopt must take into account 3 components of a good decision: Quality, Speed, and Execution. Here’s how we are defining each. PPT4 As you go through these, ask What might you add? Also, ask for examples of what these might mean for your group. What does “fast as possible” mean to you? Which Adobe values are important?

What is “appropriate input? ” Quality Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 6 January 2005 A quality decision, uses… • Right people in the right roles • Information from all key Contributors • What the team knows or could know at the time • Data but does not wait for all possible data • Adobe values explicitly in decision criteria Speed A speedy decision process is one that is… • Made as fast as possible, but no faster • Allows time for appropriate input, but not for procrastination Execution A decision that will be executed successfully is one where the… People who need to know are informed • People who must implement understand their next steps • People who must implement and support, commit and move forward We may need to balance these elements depending on the decision we are making. While ideally we would address them equally in all decisions, in the real world, some decisions may need to go very fast and others may need exceptionally high quality. Can you think of any examples in our group where one component might be or was more important than the others?

In the end, though, almost every decision requires those who must implement and support it to commit and move forward Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 7 January 2005 You can end this section by making connections, where possible, to the comments from the Hopes and Fears discussion, noting how the focus on Quality, Speed, and Execution might address them. LECTURE: DACI and Decision-Making Framework (5) We’re now going to work specifically on the DACI decision-making model. Fundamentally, DACI is…

PPT5 A tool for clarifying responsibilities and roles among a group of people with regard to key decisions Setting budgets, planning for product launch, deferring a product feature are examples of decisions that might require a DACI. This tool requires that team members clearly specify and publish each person’s level of influence on key decisions BEFORE the process begins. It is especially helpful for teams that are struggling with who plays which roles and with getting decisions to be accepted and understood. And not all decisions require a DACI.

Let me show you the overall decision-making framework, which highlights key elements of DACI. PPT6 First part of the framework is WHAT is the Desired Outcome. In this first phase, the desired outcome is identified and written down, an individual is selected who will drive the process, and people with expertise and experience are picked to contribute their input to the decision. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 8 January 2005 Next, WHO will play each of the Roles is identified. These are Driver, Approver, Contributor, and Informed. We’ll discuss each in detail next.

Finally, the framework address HOW the process will work. The Driver facilitates the process, ensuring communication and conflict resolution. LECTURE: The Roles (15) There are 4 key roles in the DACI Model. PPT7 (D) Driver: Drives the decision process, including framing the decision (what you are trying to achieve and what are the parameters), attaining shared vision (agreement on the frame and the process) and keeping it moving toward a decision. In this regard, they are responsible for Speed. They can come from any function, if they have the right skills and credibility.

Driver activities can include • Ensuring right people are involved in decision-making • Keeping communication flowing to relevant individuals • Setting and keeping deadlines • Gathering relevant information/opinions • Scheduling meetings • Following up on action items • Ensuring that the Informed are told about decision (A) Approver: Makes the final decision. “The buck stops here. ” This role is responsible for Quality and getting commitment to Execution. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 9 January 2005 Ideally, there should be only 1 Approver per decision, with others agreeing to be strong Contributors.

This can be a challenge with decisions that cross product or functional lines. For example, Creative Suites go across multiple applications, and decisions will affect different products. Can you think of any decisions we make that might fall into this category? With people wanting more then one Approver? If more then one Approver is needed, the goal is to have no more than 3 and these individuals should work closely together. In some cases, depending on the complexity of the decision, the Driver and Approver can be the same person. Can you think of any decisions we make that might fall into this category?

Example, a department reorganization decision Approvers identify and communicate decision criteria, especially non-negotiable parameters. They also communicate with those who must support and implement the decision to get their commitment. (C) Contributor: Contributes input and perspective pre-final decision They have a “voice,” but not a “vote. ” They bring expertise, information, and/or experience to the decision. They have a role in the ensuring the Quality of the decision. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 10 January 2005 They make recommendations to the Approver.

Often Contributors are required to make a significant time commitment to the process. (I) Informed: Informed after the decision is made. These are individuals who will have some role in implementing and/or supporting the decision and need to understand what has been decided and why. DISCUSSION: A Past “DACI” (10) Select a past decision that your group has made or been involved in making. Use a visible and contentious decision and/or one where the decision process was unclear. If participants disagree about who played what role, it will reinforce the importance of DACI. Have each individual write down their answers to the following:

PPT8 For our group’s past decision… Who was the Driver? Who was the Approver(s)? Who were the Contributors? Who were the Informed? Discuss the answers. This should lead you to a better understanding of why a decision might not have worked well and illustrate how a DACI would have helped. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 11 January 2005 It will also provide a lead in to the Challenges inherent in a DACI decision, which is the next piece of content. LECTURE: DACI Challenges (10) With our own past situation in mind, lets take a look at the DACI roles and their unique challenges and requirements at Adobe PPT 9,10,11

As you go through these, ask What might you add? Driver • Clearly identify all the players and especially differentiate between those who will be Contributors (C) and those who will be Informed (I). • Bring people into the process as Contributors whose input is critical; do not include more individuals then are really needed. • Communicate from the beginning that C and I’s will not make the decision, and I’s don’t get a voice. o Takes courage to put people in the I role, especially if they have previously been included upfront.

Clarity about rationale is critical Approver • Communicate the process to be used to come up with the final decision. o Approvers don’t need to come up with decision alone • Clearly explain the final decision • Do not “un-do” the decision after it has been made Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 12 January 2005 Contributor • Accept having a voice only, i. e. , it’s not their decision to make • Need to share opinions even if not the final Approver • Understand that in some cases they can represent the views of others Informed • Accept that they cannot influence the decision before it is made or change it afterward. Need to trust they will be given a complete explanation of final decision • Need to trust the expertise of the Approver • May not like decision – must be able to disagree and commit (formal acceptance) EXERCISE: Do a DACI (30-45) PPT12 In this section you will create a DACI with the group. You can choose a goal or task you’ve already completed or one you will do in the future. You should have the DACI filled-out in advance with your point of view, but be open to your group’s input. You can also give them the decisions required for the task and focus the discussion/work on who is the DACI for each.

You can do this process with the entire team or, if the team is too large, have them work in small groups and report out results for discussion. Your goal: helping them understand and articulate who will play what role in the DACI and why. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 13 January 2005 I’d like us to create a DACI together for a key set of decisions. HANDOUT I’m going to handout a DACI Worksheet. There are 2 copies, one to use for this exercise, one to have for future work. On the Worksheet you see that a key element is the outcome desired – the goal or the task that needs to be accomplished, e. . , reorganizing a group, creating a marketing campaign, developing a new finance process. Typically the desired outcome will have a number of decisions required to accomplish them, and the Approver with possible input from the Driver will identify it. Important: Write down and publish the Desired Outcome so all can see and understand it. Do and discuss the DACI LECTURE: Tips for DACI (10) PPT 13,14 Before we end, I wanted to review some tips for using DACI with courage. I add “courage” because there are parts of this tool that will change the current culture and will require fortitude to implement.

I’m posing them as challenging questions. • Do you need a DACI for this decision? Does its size, complexity, visibility, risk, or new-ness require it? If YES… • Have you clearly defined, communicated, and gotten buy-in on all the roles? • Can you push people down the DACI “chain? ” Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 14 January 2005 o E. g. , from Approver to Contributor or Contributor to Informed • Can you get ONE Approver? o Better Quality likely from one then two or three • Does the Approver have a plan for addressing last minute input from individuals outside the identified process? Especially after he or she has made the decision? Can you get fewer Contributors, which will help speed up the process? o Do they know they must support the Speed goal? o Are they able to commit the time needed for a successful decision? o Do they know they represent others? o Will fewer Contributors still produce the Quality decision you want? LECTURE: Call to Action (10) To help Adobe use DACI consistently and effectively I want to emphasize two final points. PPT15 When you are asked to participate in a decision process: • Insist on knowing your Role and others Roles • Do your role, and then support the Approver’s decision PPT16 By this final bullet point I mean…

Describe the 4 quadrants. If you find yourself in the lower right quadrant, you either need to convince the Approver to change or move yourself up to the upper right somehow to Disagree but Commit. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 15 January 2005 And if you are an Approver in a process, just be careful you don’t have too many people in Disagree but Commit. You will find execution much harder. CONCLUSION (5) Are there any final questions or comments about DACI? Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 16 January 2005 OPTIONAL SESSION: TELL-SELL MODEL (75 Minutes)

LECTURE: TELL-SELL Model (15) PPT1 Another useful model is referred in shorthand as the Tell-Sell model – a name you’ll understand better as we get into it. This model focuses on how the individual who is responsible for making the decision uses their team members. If there is a DACI process in place, the decision maker can be thought of as the Approver and the team members as Contributors. However, this model also works in more informal decision making when we are working together on less complex, risky and/or visible decisions – situations when a DACI is not required.

There are 5 approaches that fall on a continuum. PPT2 On the left side are decisions that require use of a manager’s authority. On the right are decisions using participation from the group. This model is based on the work of Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt, early and well-respected management theorists. Most people tend to make decisions using one or two dominate approaches, but the premise of the model is: I’m working on being more flexible based on the situation, which is in line with the premise of the model: PPT3 Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 17

January 2005 Your ability to get the results you need increases as you become more able to choose from all five based on the situation and degree of commitment/acceptance needed from your group. Let’s review the approaches: PPT4 Tell: Leader makes the decision and announces it. Sell: Leader makes the decision and explains the benefits to the group. May invite questions. Test: Leader presents a tentative decision subject to change. Consult: Leader presents a problem, gets suggestions, and input from the group, but reserves the right to make the final decision.

Join: Leader works with other group members to define the problem and identify solutions. Team is responsible for the decision. Again, there is no right and wrong approach to decision making. The right approach depends on the situation. Also, some decisions require a couple of approaches, e. g. , I “Sell” you that we need to change a process, I “Consult” with you on the steps in the new process. There are tips to understanding when to use each approach in your slide packet. PPT 5,6,7,8 These situations can be mutually exclusive or a situation can combine a few of them.

Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 18 January 2005 Ask participants to read the slides one approach at a time. After each approach, ask them: Can you think of times when I’ve been in Tell? Sell? Test? Consult? Join? In my experience, it is rare in business that we are in pure Tell. People need to hear and understand the reasoning behind decisions. It’s also rare to be in Join – that the manager has no opinion and is completely prepared to take group’s decision no matter what! However, managers often pretend they are in Join. We’ll talk more about that later. We are mostly in the middle area.

SMALL GROUP DECISION SCENARIOS (10) PPT 9,10 To help you better understand the approaches, I’d like you to work on 2 scenarios. Put yourself in the manager’s shoes. In small Groups, discuss them and decide on your approach. Use the content in your slide packet to help you. Either use existing Table Groups, if you have them, or put participants in groups of 4-5. Scenarios w/ Answers Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 19 January 2005 • You need to make a decision about some new steps in your group’s quality control process. In the past, you have included your team in this type of decision. Recently the composition of the group has changed.

It now includes a lot of inexperienced members – individuals without the training and background to contribute to the decision. You know the entire team expects to be involved in the decision. Answer: Test (Manager makes tentative decision subject to change. ) Why? Commitment is important and group has an expectation of involvement – which is how commitment is engendered. Given that some members do have expertise, testing a decision you’ve tentatively can be beneficial to you and the team. Given that many members are inexperienced the best you can do is get an opinion of something you have already thought through. You are about to hire a key player for your team. The role is essential to your success with customers, and there will be lots of interaction with other team members. Your entire team of experienced employees has interviewed the final candidate, and they have strong opinions about who to hire—some of which differ from your own. Time is short and both of the top two candidates have offers from other companies. Answer: Consult (Manager presents problem, gets suggestions, makes final decisions. ) Why? Group has expertise and given close working relationship, commitment is critical.

However, you will make the final decision, which is appropriate for this situation. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 20 January 2005 LARGE GROUP DEBRIEF (15) Discuss the answers to the scenarios. LECTURE: Communicating your Approach (5) In addition to being able to choose the right approach for the situation, it is as important to communicate clearly which approach you are taking. You have probably all been asked for input from someone who has already made their decision. They talk as though they are in Join, but they are actually in Sell and unwilling to own up to it.

PPT11 Research has shown the important factor in determining a managers’ decisiveness is how clear they are about how they are making the decision rather than how quick they are to make it. This is why I want us all to know this model, so I can communicate using the language about where I am on the continuum. And so you can ask me if I forget! It’s also helpful for you to use it with each other and on projects you are working on in the organization. LECTURE: Commitment – Acceptance – Compliance (10) PPT 12,13 We’ve been referring to the degree of commitment or acceptance a group needs in order to effectively act.

That’s because, in addition to the situational forces we have just been discussing, it is crucial to know how committed your group needs to be in order to get the decision implemented. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 21 January 2005 Let’s combine the Tell Sell … Model with the levels of commitment. On this rough continuum (not finely calibrated), we see that the more you need genuine commitment, the more you use Join and Consult. The more you can live with compliance and formal acceptance, the more you can use Tell/Sell/Test. I wanted to bring this up because I’d like to use this explicitly in our own group decision-making.

When a decision is made, I’d like to ask you where you are on the continuum. It will help me know what more individuals might need from me and generally what I can expect. Please know that if I’ve done a Sell or Test, that saying you’re in Formal Acceptance will be fine! I’d like to make a connection to the DACI model here. As you’ve heard, one of the rallying cries within DACI is “Disagree but Commit! ” As the Tell-Sell model points out, the more a manager or Approver is in Tell or Sell with his Contributors, the more likely Compliance type behavior will occur.

Genuine commitment will be elusive and while individuals may “get on board,” it will take hard work to keep them there. DISCUSSION: DACI and TELL-SELL (10) Lets end with some more discussion and work on where DACI and Tell-Sell integrate. PPT14 As I said earlier, the Tell-Sell Model is where the Approver interacts with the Contributors when a DACI is in place. Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 22 January 2005 The Approver must determine how he or she will work with the Contributors on the decisions and, of course, communicate that clearly to them! You would not use the Tell, Sell approaches with DACI Contributors.

Contributors expect to have input! However, Approvers need to figure out how much input (is it a Test? Consult? Join? ) And then, as I said before, communicate this to the Contributors. Let’s look at a few examples of how that might work where I am the Approver. Use examples that are relevant for you or the examples below. Redistribute work within the department. Who would contribute? What approach might I use with them? Possible Answer: Test or Consult with Contributors depending on their level of expertise, time frame, your need for commitment, etc. Develop a new process to fix a problem with … (MANAGER: fill in here).

Who would contribute? What approach might I use with them? Possible Answer: Depending on the criticality, time frame (immediate? ), level of commitment to result, and expertise to fix, you might Test or Consult. Figure out the next holiday party theme. Who would contribute? What approach might I use with them? Decision Making Intro v3. 1 FINAL 23 January 2005 Possible Answer: If you don’t have an opinion and the party is not crucial to the work of the group, you might use Join and share your Approval with the group. However, if you are concerned about what the group might decide, use Consult.

CONCLUSION (5) Any final questions or concerns about this model and how we might use it? DECISION MAKING: DACI for Quality, Speed and Execution 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 1 bc Goal To improve our decision making process by understanding and using the DACI 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 2 bc Discussion What do you hope/fear that we will/won’t change about our decision making process? 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 3 bc Elements of a Good Decision: Quality, Speed and Execution

Quality…one that uses… Right people in right roles Information from all key Contributors What the team knows or could know at the time Data but does not wait for all possible data Adobe’s values explicitly in decision criteria Speed…one that is… Made as fast as possible, but no faster Allows time for appropriate input, but not for procrastination Execution…one where… People who need to know are informed of what and why People who must implement understand their next steps People who must implement and support, commit and move forward 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

Adobe Confidential 4 bc DACI A tool for clarifying responsibilities and roles (especially levels of influence) with regard to decisions BEFORE the decision-making process begins 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 5 bc Decision Making Framework: Getting Quality, Speed, and Execution WHAT Clear Outcome WHO Clear Roles HOW Clear Process • Driver facilitates process • Team works through disagreements that arise at all stages of process • Driver ensures ongoing and post-decision communication (i. e. , telling I’s the decision and explaining why)

Identify and write down the Desired Outcome Select a process Driver • Driver: Drives the decision process • Approver: Makes final decision • Contributor: Gives input and perspective pre-final decision Identify KEY Contributors • Informed: Guaranteed to whose input and be told the decision after support will it is made improve the decision and make it “stick” Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 6 2004 Adobe Systems bc DACI Roles and Actions DACI Roles Driver = Drives the decision process, framing what we are trying to do and how. Responsible for Speed.

With the right skills and credibility, can come from any function. Approver = Makes the final decision. “The buck stops here. ” Responsible for Quality and getting commitment to Execution. One Approver is goal; 3 is the max. Contributor = Contributes input and perspective pre-final decision. Helps ensure Quality. Have a “voice,” but not a “vote. ” Informed = Informed after decision is made. Key Actions Ensures the right people are involved, communication flows, and deadlines are set and met. Identifies and communicates decision criteria, especially “non-negotiables” Brings expertise, nformation, and/or experience to the decision and makes recommendations to the Approver. Have some role in implementing and/or supporting the decision and need to know and understand what has been decided and why. Make sure you know what your Role is and who the Driver and Approver are 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 7 bc PAST DACI For our group’s past decision…. Who was the Driver? Who was the Approver (s)? Who were the Contributors? Who were the Informed? 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 8 bc DACI Challenges Driver

Clearly identify all the players and especially differentiate between those who will be Contributors (C) and those who will be Informed (I). Bring people into the process as Contributors whose input is critical; do not include more individuals then are really needed. Communicate from the beginning that C and I’s will not make the decision, and I’s don’t get a voice. Takes courage to put people in the I role, especially if they have previously been included upfront. Clarity about rationale is critical. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 9 bc DACI Challenges Approver

Communicate the process to be used to come up with the final decision Approvers don’t need to come up with decision alone Clearly explain the final decision Do not “un-do” the decision after it has been made Contributor Accept having a voice only, i. e. , it’s not their decision to make Need to share opinions even if not the final Approver Understand that in some cases they can represent the views of others 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 10 bc DACI Challenges Informed Accept that they cannot influence the decision before it is made or change it afterward.

Need to trust they will be given a complete explanation of final decision. Need to trust the expertise of the Approver. May not like the decision – must be able to disagree and commit (formal acceptance). 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 11 bc Do a DACI What is the DACI for a set of key decisions? 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 12 bc Tips for Using DACI Do you need a DACI for this decision? Does its size, complexity, visibility, risk or new-ness require it? If YES… Have you clearly defined, communicated and received buyin on all roles?

Can you push people down the DACI “chain? ” E. g. , from Approver to Contributor or Contributor to Informed Can you get ONE Approver? Better Quality likely from one then two or three Does the Approver have a plan for addressing last minute input from individuals outside the identified process? Especially after he or she has made the decision? 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 13 bc Tips for using DACI Can you get fewer Contributors to speed up the process? Do they know they must support the Speed goal? Are they able to commit the time needed for a successful decision?

Do they know they represent others? Will fewer Contributors still produce the Quality decision you want? 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 14 bc Call to Action When you are asked to participate in a decision process: Insist on knowing your Role and others Roles Do your role, and then support the Approver’s decision 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 15 bc Supporting the Decision Do You Agree with Decision? Yes No Do You Yes Commit to Execute Decision? No OK OK if ??? X Adobe Confidential 16 “Disagree but Commit” 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated.

All Rights Reserved. bc Tools for the New Work® bc 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential bc TOOL: DACI Decision Responsibility Worksheet DESCRIPTION: A tool for clarifying responsibilities and roles among a group of people with regard to key decisions and/or tasks (i. e. budgeting, planning, etc. ). This tool helps a team to clearly specify each person’s level of influence on key decisions BEFORE decision making starts. USES: When there is frustration and confusion over roles and responsibilities. When a new team goal, responsibility or task requires coordination of member contributions.

When the solution has been identified and an implementation plan is needed. PROCESS: Using the Responsibility Worksheet, identify the desired outcome and list the necessary decisions down the left side of the worksheet. List the participating team members across the top line of the chart. List relevant people outside the team who need to be involved in (or are impacted by) the decision. At the appropriate intersection of “Decision” and “Name”, signify the proper role. Use the following key: (D) Driver: Drives the decision process, including framing the decision, attaining shared vision, and keeping process moving. A) Approver: Ultimate decision maker and responsible for execution of decision. Approval authority established pre-decision. (C) Contributor: Contributes input and perspective pre-decision. (I) Informed: Informed after the decision is made. Once agreed to, distribute copies of the Responsibility Worksheet to all parties involved as soon as possible. DACI Decision Responsibility Worksheet Your Name: ___________________________________ Date: _____________________ Outcome Desired: ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________ Roles – Add names under the appropriate box: Decision(s) Needed

D (Driver) A (Approver) C (Contributor) I (Informed) © 1997 Action Learning Associates, Inc. DECISION MAKING: The TELL-SELL Model 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 1 bc Decision-Making Continuum Manager’s control over the decision Group’s influence on the decision Tell Sell Test Consult Join 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 2 bc Premise Your ability to get the results you need increases as you choose from all five approaches based on situation and degree of commitment/acceptance needed from the group. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated.

All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 3 bc Decision Making Approaches Tell: Sell: Test: Consult: Join: Leader makes decision and announces it. Leader makes the decision and explains benefits to group. Leader presents a tentative decision subject to change. Leader presents problem and gets input. Makes final decision. Leader works with group members to define problem and identify solutions. Team makes decision. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 4 bc Decision Making Approaches: When to Use Each Approach Tell: It’s a crisis The group doesn’t have expertise to decide Issue is a “dead horse,” i. . , no more life or interest left in it Issue doesn’t matter that much to group High need for confidentiality No choice You’ve already made the decision You don’t need commitment 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 5 bc Decision Making Approaches: When to Use Each Approach Sell: It’s a crisis The group doesn’t have expertise to decide No choice You’ve already made the decision You need some level of commitment TIP: Deciding between Tell and Sell Are you willing to give a reason? If yes, use Sell. If no, use Tell. Is some commitment necessary?

If yes, use Sell. If no, use Tell. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 6 bc Decision Making Approaches: When to Use Each Approach Test: Commitment is important, but time is short and/or the group has limited expertise High risk/high visibility situation, but you value expertise of the group Group has low tolerance for ambiguity TIP: Deciding between Sell and Test Are you willing to change your mind? If yes, use Test. If no, use Sell. Consult: Group has expertise Learning is a priority You are genuinely open to any solution that solves the problem

Commitment is critical TIP: Deciding between Test and Consult Does the group have expertise? If yes, use Consult. If no, use Test. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 7 bc Decision Making Approaches: When to Use Each Approach Join: The group is capable of sharing leadership It’s low risk You want to promote teamwork Learning is priority The issue is more important to the group than to you High level of commitment is needed TIP: Deciding between Consult and Join Are you willing to give up control of outcome? If no, use Consult. If yes, use Tell.

Is some commitment necessary? If yes, use Sell. If no, Join. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 8 bc Decision Making Case #1 1. You need to make a decision about some new steps in your group’s quality control process. In the past, you have included your team in this type of decision. Recently the composition of the group has changed. It now includes a lot of inexperienced members – individuals without the training and background to contribute to the decision. You know the entire team expects to be involved in the decision. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated.

All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 9 bc Decision Making Case #2 2. You are about to hire a key player for your team. The role is essential to your success with customers, and there will be lots of interaction with other team members. Your entire team of experienced employees has interviewed the final candidate, and they have strong opinions about who to hire – some of which differ from your own. Time is short and both of the top two candidates have offers from other companies. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 10 bc Communicating Your Approach

Important factor in determining managers’ decisiveness is how clear they are about how they are making the decision rather than how quickly they make them. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 11 bc Levels of Acceptance Compliance Formal Acceptance Genuine Acceptance Commitment Manager’s control over the decision Group’s influence on the decision Tell Sell Test Consult Join 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 12 bc Decision Making: Levels of Acceptance Before choosing a decision approach, consider how committed your group needs to be in order to implement the decision.

Commitment: “I completely agree with the actions to be taken, and I’m completely aligned with the desired outcome. I want to carry this out because it is the very best decision. ” Genuine acceptance: “I can go along with this decision and action. It may not be my idea, but it is acceptable to me, and I can genuinely carry it out. ” Formal acceptance: “You’re the leader, and if you want it this way, I’m willing to go along with it. If it were up to me, I might do it differently, but I’ll get it done. Compliance: “I hate this decision. If you want me to do this, you’d better specify exactly what you want done.

Don’t ask me to use any of my own judgment in carrying it out. In fact, you’ll need to monitor the implementation closely. ” 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 13 bc DACI and Tell-Sell Tell-Sell Model is where the Approver interacts with the Contributors. The Approver determines how to work with Contributors on the decision and communicates that clearly to them. 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential 14 bc Tools for the New Work® bc 2004 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential bc