L’union europeenne depuis les annees 50

L’union europeenne depuis les annees 50

Discuss evolution of EU through the treaties that have been signed since the origin in the 50’s A lot of numbers of treaties have been signed since the beginning of the European Union. Here are the main and which evolution they permitted. Between the 50’s and the middle of the 70’s, 3 major treaties have been signed. The ECSC Treaty which was signed in 1951, it brought bases for the future EU. Its aim was to create a common market for the strategic commodities of the time. The EEC Treaty, known as the Treaty of Rome signed in 1957.

Its aim was to create a common market, primarily by establishing a customs union between the member states. The end of customs duties has been achieved in 1968 and a common external tariff has been setting up (applying to import from third countries) Finally, the EAEC has been signed, in 1957 too in Rome such as the previous treaty. It has permitted to make faster the cooperation in the area of nuclear energy. Those different treaties have permitted to develop several policies such as the common agricultural policy in 1962 or the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) in 1975 which has implemented regional

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solidarity policy.

Between the middle of the 70’s to the middle o the 80’s, one of the major treaty of the European Union has been signed, the single European act, 300 directives signed in 1986, it was the first revision of the treaty of Rome. It was necessary to go beyond the common market established previously. It was to put an end to all remaining obstacles to trade between the Member States: The issue of controls at internal borders because there still controls by customs departments to collect VAT differences on merchandise crossing borders. VAT The technical norms and standards, which differed in each member states.

This Treaty also provided an increase of the power of the European Parliament and establishing for the first time explicitly the principle of a future common external policy. Moreover, Treaty of Maastricht has been signed in 1992 during this period which brought The creation of a single currency, to establish an EMU (economic & monetary union). It marks the foundation of the European Union, defined as basing on three pillars. It has created 2 new pillars called “Common Foreign & Security Policy” & “Police & Judicial Cooperation in Criminal Matters) Since the middle of the 90’s

In 2007, there was the sign of a major treaty, the Lisbon Treaty. It can summarize as follow: Simplifying the structure of the existing treaties Clarifying the areas of competence {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} New institutional Provisions {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Modifying and simplifying decision making {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Reinforcing the European union’s capacity to take action {text:list-item} Democracy and transparency {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} {text:list-item} Membership of the union text:list-item} {text:list-item} What is the purpose of the EU’s competition policy and how is it implemented? How does it affect business? Fair competition is a fundamental requirement in a single market. Competition policy is one of the areas of sole EU competency. Furthermore, in this area the Commission is entirely responsible for policy development and implementation: it acts as the guardian of fair competition without any interference from the Member States (who are naturally likely to be biased in favor of their own enterprises – they cannot be judge and party at the same time).

It takes decisions which have direct binding on Member States or their enterprises; as such the Commission can be regarded as having judicial power in this specific area, apart from its general executive status (its decisions can be contested before the Court of Justice). DG Competition’s missions include basically: Seeing to it that enterprises observe the rules of the game The opening of (so far regulated) markets to competition – notably in service markets Controlling State aids to enterprises.