343 composition and conversation

343 composition and conversation

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le passe simple 
literary version of passe compose. only written, never spoke.
le passe simple conjugations

er verbs- -ai, -as,-a,-âmes,-âtes,-èrent

ir/re verbs- -is,-is,-it,-îmes,-îtes,-irent

autres verbes- « u » versions (avoir, croire, vouloir)

-« i » verbs use ir/re rules (dire, mettre)

-etre special- fus, fus, fut, fûmes, fûtes, furent

 

present tense

i ___

what is occuring currently

present tense conjugation

er verbs- e, es, e, ons, ez, ent

ir verbs- is, is, it, issons, issez, issent

re verbs- s, s, -, ons, ez, ent

irregulars- etre, avoir, aller, faire

passe compose

i___ed

what is in the past, what has been finished. different than imparfait, where action can still be occuring, or if it was something you used to do. i waited is past tense

passe compose conjugations

avoir + past participle

for vandertramps, etre + past participle

reflexive, etre

futur

i will ____

to be used when talking about the future.

futur conjugations
infinitive plus avoir- ai, as, a, ons, ez, ent
imparfait
The imperfect ( l’imparfait) expresses or describes continued, repeated, habitual actions or incomplete actions, situations, or events in the past. The imperfect describes what was going on at an indefinite time in the past or what used to happen. The imperfect can be translated by ;would; when it implies ;used to.; The imperfect is a simple tense that does not require a helping verb.
imparfait conjugations

stem of nous form, add -ais,-ais,-ait, -ions,-iez,-aient

i.e.-j’aimais, tu aimais, il aimait, nous aimions, vous aimiez, ils aimaient

plus-que-parfait

i had ___

takes place in the past before another past event, but sometimes with exceptions

plus-que-parfait conjugations

imparfait of avoir plus past participle

i.e.- j’avais aim;, etc.

present subjunctive
The imperfect ( l’imparfait) expresses or describes continued, repeated, habitual actions or incomplete actions, situations, or events in the past. The imperfect describes what was going on at an indefinite time in the past or what used to happen. The imperfect can be translated by “would” when it implies “used to.” The imperfect is a simple tense that does not require a helping verb.
present subjunctive conjugations

1) take the nous form of present verb (parler–>parl)

2) add endings -e,-es,-e, -ions, -iez, -ent

conditional

i would ____

The conditional is used to express what would happen given certain events or actions.

conditional conjugations

infinitive + imparfait endings

i.e.- parlerais, parlerais, parlerait, parlerions, parleriez, parleraient

pronoms relatif

qui is always a subject–> c’est toi qui as mal

que is a direct object–> la robe que j’ai achetée hier est un peu trop grande pour moi

dont is used when the object preposition is de–>le dictionnaire dont j’ai besoin a disparu. (also, dont can be used in some cases for whom, but rarely)

a few verbs that will take dont

avoir besoin de

avoir envie de

avoir peur de

etre surpris de

parler de qqn

penser de

rever de

se souvenir de qqn

lequel/laquelle, lesqeuls/lesquelles
The form of lequel must agree with the antecedent (the preceding noun to which it refers). For example, you are in a store and speaking about a feminine singular article: La chemise bleue est très chic (The blue shirt is very stylish). If I wanted to know to which blue shirt you were referring, I would have to use the feminine, singular form: Laquelle?
antonymes et expressions de temps

avant/apres, dernier/prochain, il y a/dans, toujours/parfois (ou jamais)

demain, aujourd’hui, ce soir, hier, l’an prochain, l’an passé

autres expressions de temps courantes
pour commencer, ensuite, pour finir, pour le moment ou en ce moment, bientôt, tout de suite, de temps en temps, jusqu’à
temps indicatif
   quand/lorsque, au moment où, dès que ou aussitôt que, tant que, apres que, pendant que, depuis que
translation for ago?
il y a v. depuis
translation for « for »?

pendant–> les musiciens ont repete pendant (not pour) toute la soiree. pendant is a synonym for during

pour–>valerie est partie pour trois mois (always used with aller, venir et partir)

passive voice

tous ses amis taquinent jean claude–> jean claude est tquine par tous ses amis.

 

see page 339 in Contrastes for passive voice verb chart.

faire causatif

to make qqn do something for you…to have a service done. i.e. nails done, hair done, etc.

nous l’avons fait refaire.

nous l’avons fait repeindre (nous avons fait repeindre notre maison)

comparisions (more, less)

plus + adjective (or adverb or noun) + que = more … than

moins + adjective (or adverb or noun) + que = less … than

 

Louise est plus petite que sa soeur. (Louise is smaller than her sister.)

Il court moins vite que moi. (He runs less fast than I do.)

comparisons (superlatives)

to say some(one)(thing)(s) is the best or worst at something

le (or la or les) plus (or moins) + adjective (or adverb or noun) + de

Louise est la plus petite de la famille. (Louise is the smallest of the family.)

comparisons (equality)

To express “as … as” use the French expression:

aussi + adjective (or adverb) + que:

Elle est aussi intelligente que moi. (She is as intelligent as I am.)

avant que

subjuntive clause

je parlerai avant que je pense (pense is subjuncitve)

 

avant de

+ infinitive

je le ferai avant de manger

avant

+noun, pronoun, time

je vais partir avant le matin

pour que (so that) phrase for subjunctive
Il crie pour que tu l’entendes.
pendant que (while), à cause de (because of…+noun, pronoun), parce que (because)
THESE ALL TAKE INDICATIVE TENSE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
conjunctions that take the subjunctive
avant que (before), bien que (although), quoique (although), pour que (so that), pourvu que (provided that), à moins que (unless), sans que (without), jusqu’à ce que (until)
conjunctions that take indicative

parce que (because), apres que (after), puisque (since), tandis que (as long as), lorsque* (when), quand* (when), tant que* (as long as), dès que* (as soon as), aussitôt que* (as soon as)

* first part in futur–>last part in futur

subjunctive stems

aller- aill/all

vouloir- veuill/voul

venir- vienn/ven

devoir- doiv/dev

prendre- prenne/pren

subjunctive stems irregular

pouvoir- puiss

faire- fass

savoir- sach

ecrire- ecriv

dire- dis

partir- part, sortir- sort, dormir- dorm

lire-lis

rire- ri

mettre- mett

connaitre- connaiss